Electron Orbits

July 27, 2020
Charles deAnne

Atomic bonding energy of a single electron is:

Where:

me = electron mass


c = speed of light

Z = number of protons in the nucleus
(If the single electron is in the outermost shell, Z is reduced by the number of electrons in the inner shells.)

N = integer (1, 2, 3, ...)

If   


*  It is unfortunate that:
                                    

Unimaginable effort has been expended over the past century in attempts to develop models in which the reciprocal of alpha is exactly 137.

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