By Charles deAnne Most recent revision: April 4, 2020
## Summary of results:The number of quantum electric particles in a coulomb is given by: Note that the physical dimensions cancel in the above equation, making the coulomb a pure number. It is an arbitrary quantity determined by Ampere's decision to fix the
magnetic force per meter between two parallel coulomb-per-second currents
separated by one meter to 2X10 ^{-7} newton.The electron charge is the reciprocal of the coulomb. Electron charge, e, also has no physical dimensions. Since a coulomb-volt is defined as one joule, the electron charge, e, is the conversion factor that converts eV to joule. The electrostatic constant defines the force between point coulomb concentrations: The equation for the constant electric field between two parallel
planes with opposite but equal coulomb surface densities, sigma_q, contains a factor of 4PI when expressed as a function of the electrostatic constant. To
simplify the above equation (and eliminate the
four-pi factor), the electrostatic constant was re-defined as: Epsilon_zero , or permittivity of free space, now gives the force per coulomb on a charge located between parallel planes of equal and opposite coulomb densities as:Permeability of free space, mu_zero, was originally defined as:This also gives the truly mystical definition of light speed: ## Potential energy between two quantum electric particlesThe absolute value of potential energy between two quantum electric particles (electrons or protons), separated by the classical electron radius, is equal to the rest mass energy of the electron. Since potential energy is inversely proportional to the distance of separation, the equation for potential energy between each unique pair of electric particles is:
The factors, plus or minus one, represent single particles at each end of r, with a plus assigned to protons and a minus assigned to electrons. For point concentrations of Y particles at one end of r and Z particles at the other end, the total number of unique quantum pairs is the product, YZ, giving the total potential energy as:
A spatial gradient of energy is equivalent to a force directed toward the region of lower energy. Taking the derivative of the above equation with respect to r gives the electric force between two point concentrations of quantum particles:
## Force between a single electron and an infinite straight line of electronsImagine a line of uniformly distributed electrons on the 'x' axis, and the subject single electron on the 'y' axis, distance, d, from the origin. Partitioning the 'x' axis into small, equal, incremental distances, dx, the number of electrons in each partition is: (lambda_Z is the linear density in electrons per unit length) For each dx at +x, there is a corresponding dx at -x. Since the horizontal components of force from each paired group of electrons are equal and opposite, they cancel each other, leaving the net force always perpendicular to the 'x' axis: (L is the distance from the electron to the dx located at +x, and phi is the acute angle between the 'y' axis and L.) Substituting and re-grouping, The differential angle subtended by dx is the component of dx perpendicular to L, divided by L: Integrating the incremental forces while phi goes from zero to PI/2, is equivalent to integrating the same incremental forces as x goes from zero to infinity. Since: The total vertical force on the electron is: ## Force between parallel lines of quantum particles |